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[2]       N. Barberis Negra, J. Todorovic, and T. Ackermann. “Loss evaluation of HVAC and HVDC transmission solutions for large offshore wind farms”. Electric Power Systems Research, 76(11):916–927, July 2006.

[3]       Siemens. Loses of converter station. URL:

[4]      B. Silva, C. L. Moreira, L. Seca, Y. Phulpin, and J. a. Pecas Lopes. “Provision of Inertial and Primary Frequency Control Services Using Offshore Multiterminal HVDC Networks”. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 3(4):800–808, October 2012.

[5]      ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity). IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINE “Requirements for Grid Connection Applicable to all Generators”. (October), 2013.

[6]        Rui M G Castro. “Introdução à Energia Eólica”. 2003(edição 1).

[7]        Eolicas de Portugal ENEOP. Energia Eólica. 2014. URL:

[8]        The European Wind Energy Association. Powering the energy debate. 2010.

[9]         Redes Energéticas Nacionais. A Energia Eólica em Portugal, 2012.

[10]    Conselho de Ministros Português. Plano Nacional de Ação para as Energia Renováveis (PNAER). Diário da República, 70:2022 –2091.

[11]       The European Wind Energy Association. Oceans of Opportunity. 2009.

[12]       The European Wind Energy Association. The European offshore wind industry – key trends and statistics 2012. (January), 2013.

[13]     The European Wind Energy Association. Portugal’s rising wind energy star. 30(June), 2011.

[14]    Marco Liserre, Senior Member, Roberto Cárdenas, Marta Molinas, and José Rodríguez. Overview of Multi-MW Wind Turbines and Wind Parks. 58(4):1081–1095, 2011.

[15]      Fernando Sada. Aggregate Model of LargeWind Parks for Power System Studies Aggregate Model of Large Wind Parks for Power System Studies. 2011.

[16]      Thomas Ackermann. Wind Power in Power Systems. Royal Institute of Tech-nology -Stockholm, Sweden.

[17]       L.P Lazaridis. “Economic Comparison of HVAC and HVDC Solutions for Large Offshore Wind Farms under Special Consideration of Reliability” Lazaros P. Lazaridis. PhD thesis, Royal Institute of Technology: Stockholm, 2005.

[18]       José Luís and Veiga Moreira. Postos de Transformação Submarinos para Parques de Energias Renováveis Offshore Orientador : Professor Cláudio Monteiro José Luís Veiga Moreira Soares Maio 2007.

[19]           ABB. Submarine Power Cables Cables for offshore platforms. 2012.

[20]           J. P. Sucena Paiva. Redes de Energia, uma Análise Sistémica. 2005.

[21]           ABB. Estlink HVDC, Estonia – Finland. URL:

[22]   ABB. The high voltage DC breaker The power grid revolution. (November), 2012.

[23]       Kala Meah, Student Member, Sadrul Ula, and Senior Member. “Comparative Evaluation of HVDC and HVAC Transmission Systems”. pages 1–5, 2007.

[24]          Anna-karin Skytt. HVDC Light for connection of wind farms. 2001.

[25]       Sérgio Manuel and De Araújo Luís. Soluções de Controlo para Redes HVDC Multi- Terminal. PhD thesis, 2012.

[26]       ABB. It’s time to connect – Technical description of HVDC Light R tech-nology. The Journal of medicine and philosophy, 39, February 2013.

[27]        W. Lu B.-T. Ooi. “Optimal acquisition and aggregation of offshore wind power by multiterminal voltage source HVDC”. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, pages 201–206, 2003.

[28]        Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, Jun Liang, Janaka Ekanayake, Rosemary King, and Nicholas Jenkins. “Topologies of multiterminal HVDC-VSC transmission for large offshore wind farms”. Electric Power Systems Research, 81(2):271–281, February 2011.

[29]       Stijn Cole, Student Member, Jef Beerten, and Ronnie Belmans. “Generalized Dynamic VSC MTDC Model for Power System Stability Studies”. 25(3):1655–1662, 2010.

[30]        Jun Liang, Tianjun Jing, Student Member, and Oriol Gomis-bellmunt. “Operation and Control of Multiterminal HVDC Transmission for Offshore Wind Farms”. 26(4):2596–2604, 2011.

[31]        S K Chaudhary, Student Member, R Teodorescu, Senior Member, P Rodriguez, and P C Kjæ r Member. “Chopper Controlled Resistors in VSC-HVDC Transmission for WPP with Full-scale Converters”. pages 1–8.

[32]        Theodoros D Vrionis, Xanthi I Koutiva, Student Member, Nicholas A Vovos, Senior Member, and Gabriel B Giannakopoulos. “Control of an HVdc Link Connecting a Wind Farm to the Grid for Fault Ride-Through Enhancement”. 22(4):2039–2047, 2007.

[33]    Christian Feltes, Student Member, Holger Wrede, and Friedrich W Koch. “Enhanced Fault Ride-Through Method for Wind Farms Connected to the Grid Through VSC-Based HVDC Transmission”. 24(3):1537–1546, 2009.